International invitation top tournament series in Italy
Rome (Banco di Roma)
REGGIO EMILIA (Torneo di Capodanno) Prequel 1947 and 1951, annually played from 1958/59 to 2011/12
City in northern Italy, which hosted 54 annual international invitation tournaments on initiative of Enrico Paoli.
Five World Champions played: Kasparov, Spassky and Smyslov did not win.
ROME (Banco di Roma) 1976 – 1988
International invitational tournament established on initiative of Alvise Zichichi, IM, arbiter and organizer, he worked for the Banco di Roma.
Two strong Open Festivals followed in 1989 & 1990.
VENICE-VENEZIA 1947 – 1974 unregular (ten major editions)
Famous series of international invitation tournaments.
Three World Chess Champions, Euwe, Smyslov (twice), and Petrosian as reigning WCC competed at Venice – but all were not winning!
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